I en utvärdering av ett stort projekt om formativ bedömning (vurdering for laering) i Norge såg man nästan inga effekter på elevnivå och rektorer, lärare och elever hade ofta olika uppfattning om huruvida man faktiskt jobbade formativt på skolan (vanligt var att rektor sa att man gjorde det men det beskrevs ej i samma utsträckning av lärare och elever). Implementeringen och stöttningen har sett olika ut och pekas ut som en delförklaring till de spridda resultaten. Några framgångsfaktorer var:
- The municipalities that successfully implemented the programme demonstrated clear communication between governance levels and a high degree of trust between stakeholders.
- Municipal and school leaders who based their implementation strategies on a clear understanding of the programme goals and who could integrate these goals within the broader aims of educational policy and school practice were more successful in their implementation.
Man sammanfattar även litteraturen om större projekt kopplat till formativ bedömning och skriver på s. 34:
”…Klenowski states that some misunderstandings “… have stemmed from a desire to be seen to be embracing the concept – but in reality implementing a set of practices that are mechanical or superficial and without the teacher’s, and most importantly, the students’, active engagement with learning as the focal point. While observing the letter of AfL, this does violence to its spirit” (2009, p. 263). This concern about a superficial understanding of the approach leading to a mechanical or equivocal use of AfL in practice is supported by other authors like Hayward and Spencer (2010), Tapan (2001), Webb and Jones (2009), Ofsted (2008) and Azúa and Bick (2009). It is also found in the work of Harlen (2007), who describes how formative assessment can have both positive and negative impacts: On the one hand, formative assessment can have a positive impact on teaching and learning, on the other hand, a negative effect of formative assessment can be seen if teachers are following procedures mechanically without understanding the purpose of the assessment (ibid., p.20).”
Det här med formativ bedömning är alltså inte alltid så enkelt. Det handlar inte om tekniker, utan om processer och synen på kunskap, lärande, undervisning, min roll som lärare och även kanske min syn på elever? Från ett projekt i Kanada rapporteras det om:
”In the LHTL project, the researchers found many teachers who were attempting to engage in AfL by adding strategies to their existing assessment repertoire without shifting the purpose towards enhanced learning. This finding echoed a finding from a Canadian study in which we used the metaphor of creating an audio recording to describe the different ways in which teachers incorporate ideas of assessment for learning into their practices. For some teachers, the process of incorporating new assessment strategies was like laying new sound tracks onto an existing audiotape. Their original approach to teaching and assessment remained intact, but some additional material was superimposed upon it. The other end of the spectrum was like working with a sophisticated digitized recording system. This was rare in our study. These teachers had a sense of the components of the work and the mood they wanted to create, but operated using an open and changeable approach, skipping to anywhere in the work, adding little flourishes, and maneuvering all the bits to keep the whole production flowing. The teachers who used this digital approach were able not only to use a variety of techniques every day but also to move beyond them to circumnavigate what other teachers had experienced as obstacles. The third and most prevalent production style was a mixed one – some of it audiotape, some digitized – where teachers played with the digitized approach but kept coming back to the original tape. The transitions back and forth weren’t always smooth, and these teachers frequently expressed frustration and uncertainty about their practice.”
Även i Dylan Wiliams olika projekt har man sett att lärare ibland bara adderar några ”formativa” tekniker, utan att kanske fundera på syftet och hur det påverkar undervisningen i stort, och lägger in som nya spår på en redan fullproppad gammal skiva och då ska man kanske inte bli förvånad om inte ny ljuv musik uppstår.